The San Francisco Fire Department selected civilians to help run fire hoses from a distance because the nearby hydrant system failed. San Francisco 1906 Earthquake Marriage Project–FREE De Loma Prieta-aardbeving van 1989 was een grote aardbeving die op 17 oktober 1989 om 17:04 lokale tijd plaatsvond in de San Francisco Bay Area, in de Amerikaanse staat Californië.Een beweging in de San Andreasbreuklijn zorgde ervoor dat de aarde er 10 à 15 seconden schudde. In a general way, the location of aftershocks of the event delineated the extent of the faulting, which (according to seismologist Bruce Bolt) extended about 24 miles (40 km) in length. The first is that the geometry of the San Andreas Fault goes through a transition every several thousand years. And lastly, the 1989 event did not occur on the San Andreas Fault. No surface faulting occurred, though many other ground failures and landslides were present, especially in the Summit area of the Santa Cruz Mountains. After the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, a car thief was found crushed to death in the vehicle he'd stolen. There were five reported deaths. , When the earthquake struck, the freeway buckled and twisted before the support columns failed and the upper deck fell on the lower deck. , During the first few days following the quake, electric power to most Santa Cruz County subscribers was out, and some areas had no water.  The body of a young woman coffee worker was found under a collapsed wall late the next day. 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakeSan Francisco Earthquake of 1989. Each event's aftershock sequence and effect on stress drop was closely examined, and their study indicated that the shocks affected the mainshock's rupture process. San Francisco earthquake of 1989, also called Loma Prieta earthquake, major earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay Area, California, U.S., on October 17, 1989, and caused 63 deaths, nearly 3,800 injuries, and an estimated $6 billion in property damage. The disaster’s occurrence during a major live television broadcast meant that news of the earthquake, as well as aerial views provided by the Goodyear blimp, reached a large audience. Between 1910 and 1989 there were 20 widely varying forecasts that were announced, with some that were highly specific, covering multiple aspects of an event, while others were less complete and vague. Earthquake-Associated Deaths -- California .  The Fraser-Smith et al.  In the Old Town historical district of the city of Salinas, unreinforced masonry buildings were partially destroyed. Yuk Lin Lau, 34, San Francisco . , Gregory Beroza, a seismologist with Stanford University, made several distinctions regarding the 1906 and 1989 events. Local History.  Local Fox affiliate KTVU was knocked off the air for over 90 minutes before returning to the air with a raw feed fed from one of the station's remote trucks. The failure of a 1.25-mile (2.0 km) section of the viaduct, also known as the "Cypress Structure" and the "Cypress Freeway", killed 42 and injured many more. The strong motion records also allowed for the causative fault to be determined – the rupture was related to the San Andreas Fault System. Highway 17 was blocked for several weeks due to a large slide and one person was killed by a rockfall along the coast.  The Goodyear blimp[which?] Library Binding, 9780766010604, 0766010600 The earthquake is featured in films and television shows: Some earthquake and disaster-themed television documentaries that feature the earthquake include: Image of collapsed Cypress freeway structure in Oakland, California, USGS ShakeMaps showing similar intensity patterns for the June 1988 (left) and August 1989 events near, Oakland and Interstate 880/Cypress Viaduct, 1989 World Series and television coverage of earthquake, Todd Kennedy Hitting the American Highway: The Ontology of the Hobo-hero – 2007 "...she also utilizes, 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The origin of the tsunami excited by the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake – Faulting or slumping", "Comparing sea level response at Monterey, California from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and the 1964 Great Alaskan earthquake", "The origin of the tsunami excited by the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake —Faulting or slumping? The quake caused the Oakland side of the bridge to shift 7 in (18 cm) to the east, and caused the bolts of one section to shear off, sending the 250-short-ton (230 t; 500,000 lb; 226,800 kg) section of roadbed crashing down like a trapdoor. Michaels cracked, "Well, folks, that's the greatest open in the history of television, bar none!" The earthquake significantly damaged the transportation system of the Bay Area.  Fans reported that the stadium moved in an articulated manner as the earthquake wave passed through it, that the light standards swayed by many feet, and that the concrete upper deck windscreen moved in a wave-like manner over a distance of several feet. As many as six teams of dogs and their handlers were at work identifying the large number of damaged buildings that held no victims. In the aftermath, all bridges in the area underwent seismic retrofitting to make them more resistant to earthquakes.  Santa Cruz beach lifeguards assisted in moving the victims. ... the Loma Prieta earthquake struck the San Francisco area. , The Loma Prieta earthquake was named for Loma Prieta Peak in the Santa Cruz Mountains, which lies just to the east of the mainshock epicenter. Thanks to the earthquake, old buildings were reinforced, and any future quakes would be handled better leading to fewer deaths, injuries and property damage. A miscommunication made by emergency workers at Yerba Buena Island routed some drivers the wrong way; they were directed to the upper deck where they drove eastward toward the collapse site. The strongest earthquake to hit the area since the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 , it caused 63 deaths, nearly 3,800 injuries, and an estimated $6 billion in property damage. Unlike other nearby (high gain) seismographs that were overwhelmed (driven off scale) by the large magnitude mainshock, the four accelerometers captured a useful record of the main event and more than half an hour of the early aftershock activity. San Francisco earthquake, 1989 : death and destruction. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! Some 12,000 homes and 2,600 businesses were damaged. Map of the 1989 San Francisco–Oakland earthquake (also known as the Loma Prieta earthquake). Oakland Airport repair costs were assessed at $30 million (equivalent to $65 million today). ", "Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country", "Buildings Demolished in Downtown Santa Cruz as a Result of the Loma Prieta Earthquake, 1989". The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake occurred on California’s Central Coast on October 17 at 5:04 p.m. local time.  Cable cars and electric trains and buses were stalled in place – half of Muni's transport capability was lost for 12 hours. , The earthquake changed the Bay Area's automobile transportation landscape.  From October 5, they reported that a substantial increase in noise was measured in the frequency range 0.01–10 Hz. Limited phone service remained online, providing a crucial link to rescue workers. Significant structural damage also occurred. The October 18, 1989 edition of NBC's Today that covered the earthquake ran until noon Eastern Time. , Since many forecasts had been presented for the region near Loma Prieta, seismologists were not taken by surprise by the October 1989 event. , The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge suffered severe damage, as a 76-by-50-foot (23 m × 15 m) section of the upper deck on the eastern cantilever side fell onto the deck below.  Large cracks in Oakland's runway and taxiway reduced the usable length to two-thirds normal, and damage to the dike required quick remediation to avoid flooding the runway with water from the bay. San Francisco Earthquake, 1989: Death and Destruction (American Disasters) by Victoria Sherrow. When the quake struck at approximately 5:04 PDT, sportscaster Tim McCarver was narrating taped highlights of Game 2, which had been played two days prior across the Bay Bridge in Oakland. , It is likely that the World Series game saved many lives, as Bay Area residents who would have normally been on the freeways were at home ready to watch the game when the earthquake hit. Other areas with certain soil conditions were susceptible to site amplification due to the effects of liquefaction, especially near the shore of San Francisco Bay (where its effects were severe in the Marina District) and to the west of the epicenter near rivers and other bodies of water. Oakland City Hall was evacuated after the earthquake until a US$80 million (equivalent to US$165 million today) seismic retrofit and hazard abatement work was completed in 1995. , In Santa Cruz, close to the epicenter, 40 buildings collapsed, killing six people. Omissions? the San Francisco Chronicle online has death notices from November 2000 to present. The 6.9 earthquake, centered in the Santa Cruz Mountains, took the … 300 injuries. CBS News also began coverage around that same time with coverage from its San Francisco affiliate KPIX-TV. The earthquake was triggered by a slip along the San Andreas Fault.  Employees from Pacific Pipe drove heavy lift equipment to the scene and started using it to raise sections of fallen freeway enough to allow further rescue. A report of U.S. Army relief operations (Greely, 1906) recorded: . Ten Years After: First in a week-long retrospective of the Loma Prieta quake", "Claim Settled in the Only Quake Death, Injury on Bay Bridge", "25 Years Since Loma Prieta: Santa Cruz Journalist Has Photographic Memories of 1989 Quake", "89 quake: Wake-up call for Bay Area buildings", "Low-Frequency Magnetic Field Measurements Near the Epicenter of the M, "Loma Prieta Earthquake: 15 years later. Get this from a library! Preliminary Reconnaissance Report – Earthquake Engineering Research Institute", "Giants Clubhouse: '89 Earthquake – Major League Baseball", "After The Fall: The earthquake shattered the Bay Area, but the cities hardest hit are now mostly rebuilt – and the scars are hidden deep below the surface – San Francisco Chronicle", "Photographs of the aftermath of the Loma Prieta Earthquake from the UC Santa Cruz Library's Digital Collections", "25 Years After Loma Prieta, Earthquake Science Is Transformed – LiveScience", "You're Looking at One for the Ages Here", Ladies and Gentlemen, the Bronx Is Burning, 1978 American League East tie-breaker game, 1980 National League West tie-breaker game, "I Left My Heart in San Francisco" (Tony Bennett song), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1989_Loma_Prieta_earthquake&oldid=994278787, 1989 natural disasters in the United States, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2017, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, All articles needing additional references, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The earthquake was one of the events that was "predicted" in the TV series, This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 22:32. 498 deaths in San Francisco; 64 deaths in Santa Rosa; 102 deaths in and near San Jose; A 1972 NOAA report suggested that 700-800 was a reasonable figure. That earthquake was the largest to occur in the San Francisco Bay area since 1906. Although earlier earthquakes have been documented—such as significant movement on the southern San Andreas fault all the way back to the 1600s—the earliest reported earthquake in California was on July 28, 1769, noted by members of a Spanish expedition to chart a land route from San Diego to Monterey. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/San-Francisco-earthquake-of-1989, San Francisco–Oakland earthquake of 1989 - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Michaels also worked games for the Cincinnati Reds and San Francisco Giants. Typical California earthquake focal depths are 4 to 6 miles. 1989: San Francisco earthquake survivors On 17 October 1989, San Francisco was rocked by a powerful earthquake at just after 5pm local time. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). One 50-foot (15 m) section of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge also collapsed, leading to a single fatality, Anamafi Moala, a 23-year-old woman. Santa Cruz Public Libraries. The Loma Prieta se… Street-level Mandela Parkway now occupies the previous roadbed of the Cypress structure. had already been overhead to cover the baseball game, and ABC used it to capture images of damage to the Bay Bridge and other locations. The 1989 Loma Prieta event originated on an undiscovered oblique-slip reverse fault that is located adjacent to the San Andreas Fault. Photograph Collection: "Bay Area Quake – Landmarks Totter – Preservationists Fear Quake-Damaged Historic Buildings Will Be Torn Down", "The California Quake: The Bay Bridge; Damage to Link Across Bay Is More Serious Than Thought", "On the Cypress Freeway, Strangers Joined Together for a Snap in Time", "People Moving Gingerly As They Pick Up Pieces", "Man Who Lived 90 Hours In Quake Rubble Is Dead", "Mandela Parkway: Building Pride in West Oakland", "Search For Bodies to Take Days – State Puts Toll at 273, Then Says It Is Uncertain", "Municipal Railway Earthquake Notebook Tuesday, October 17, 1989, 5:04 PM", "Earthquake leaves behind urban travel nightmares", San Francisco-Oakland bay bridge opens to traffic after years of delays | World news, National Association of Railroad Passengers, "Bay Area / Revived push for water-transit network / Emergency system seen as necessary after a big quake", KTVU comes back on-air after 1989 earthquake, "The Bay Area Quake : Pressure Points : What Worked, What Didn't, What Didn't, And Why : Nimitz Freeway : Collapse of Deck Puts Spotlight on Aging Roads", "FULL EPISODE: Loma Prieta Earthquake, 30 Years Later", "Geologic and historical factors affecting earthquake damage", "Aftershocks of the Loma Prieta earthquake and their tectonic implications", State of California, Office of Planning and Research, "Observations of multiple liquefaction events at Soda Lake, California, during the earthquake and its aftershocks", "Reflections 20 Years Later in Loma Prieta – Whole Mountain Source Book", "October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake – United States Geological Survey", "The October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake – Selected Photograph – United States Geological Survey", "Loma Prieta Earthquake, October 17, 1989. It is a rough estimate that thousands of people may have otherwise been on the Cypress Structure during the 5:00 p.m. rush-hour, as the structure was said to have carried 195,000 vehicles a day.. With an Mw magnitude of 6.9 and a maximum Modified Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), the shock was responsible for 63 deaths and 3,757 injuries. The significant amount of vertical displacement in 1989 was a key aspect to consider because a long-term sequence of 1989-type events (with an 80–100-year recurrence interval) normally result in regions with high topographic relief, which is not seen in the Santa Cruz Mountains.  Many other communities sustained severe damage throughout the region located in Alameda, San Mateo, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. Fortunately for victims of this catastrophe, coverages like property and business insurance were able to … It struck just after 5:00 pm local time and lasted approximately 15 seconds, with a moment magnitude of 6.9. 1906 San Francisco Earthquake - Compared to Loma Prieta One great value of old seismograms is that we can make quantitative comparisons of 1906 with the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.  In other Santa Cruz and Monterey county locations such as Boulder Creek and Moss Landing, a number of structures were damaged, with some knocked off of their foundations. San Francisco earthquake, 1989 : death and destruction.  Because of new highway structure design guidelines – the requirement of ductile construction elements – instituted following the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, a limited degree of earthquake reinforcement was retrofitted to the Cypress Viaduct in 1977. Farther away from the Santa Cruz Mountains, pieces of concrete fell from a parking structure at the Sunnyvale Town Center, a two-level shopping mall in Santa Clara County. , At the intersection of Beach and Divisadero Streets in San Francisco, a natural gas main rupture caused a major structure fire. In addition, there were over 3,500 injuries and over 8,000 people became homeless. The Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 left over 63 people dead, injured thousands of others, and caused widespread harm to property and the environment alike. Plot- This is about different earth quakes that happened in San Francisco. Two moderate shocks, referred to as the Lake Elsman earthquakes by the USGS, occurred in the Santa Cruz Mountains region in June 1988 and again in August 1989. ; 11 WHOSE LIVES ENDED AS QUAKE CRUSHED I-880. Click here for the lowest price! 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakeSan Francisco Earthquake of 1989. Most of the quake deaths … Eastbound drivers stuck on the lower deck between the collapse and Yerba Buena Island were routed up to the upper deck and westward back to San Francisco. ), Power was restored to most of San Francisco by midnight, and all but 12,000 customers had their power restored within two days. The initial media reports failed to take into account the game's effect on traffic and initially estimated the death toll at 300, a number that was corrected to 63 in the days after the earthquake.  Widespread search operations were organized to find possible victims inside the remains of fallen structures. The shock was centered in The Forest of Nisene Marks State Park approximately 10 mi (16 km) northeast of Santa Cruz on a section of the San Andreas Fault System and was named for the nearby Loma Prieta Peak in the Santa Cruz Mountains. SAN FRANCISCO (KGO) -- On October 17, 1989, a 6.9 magnitude earthquake ripped through the Bay Area. 498 deaths in San Francisco; 64 deaths in Santa Rosa; 102 deaths in and near San Jose; A 1972 NOAA report suggested that 700-800 was a reasonable figure. Though this was one of the Because the rupture took place bilaterally, the duration of strong shaking was about half of what it would have been had it ruptured in one direction only. , Built in the late 1950s and opened to traffic in 1957 (as SR 17), the Cypress Street Viaduct, a stretch of Interstate 880, was a double-deck freeway section made of nonductile reinforced concrete that was constructed above and astride Cypress Street in Oakland. , While the effects of a four-year drought limited the potential of landslides, the steep terrain near the epicenter was prone to movement, and up to 4,000 landslides may have occurred during the event.  (All four network-affiliated TV stations (KRON, KGO, KTVU and CBS affiliate KPIX) would recover enough to broadcast continuous breaking news coverage of the aftermath of the quake for the next several hours, some of it picked up and broadcast nationally over their respective networks, as well as on CNN, in a manner anticipating later major catastrophes such as the 1994 Los Angeles earthquake and the 9/11 terror attacks. The San Francisco–Oakland earthquake of 1989, which was also called the Loma Prieta earthquake, was a major earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay Area of California on October 17, 1989. , Four people died in San Francisco's Marina District, four buildings were destroyed by fire, and seven buildings collapsed. Now, yes, 478 is a lot of people, but considering that the earthquake and its resulting firestorms destroyed about 90 percent of San Francisco's structures, it seems hard to believe that number.  The highest number of deaths, 42, occurred in Oakland because of the collapse of the Cypress Street Viaduct on the Nimitz Freeway (Interstate 880 - then CA-17), where the upper level of a double-deck portion of the freeway collapsed, crushing the cars on the lower level, and causing crashes on the upper level. Its epicentre was in the Forest of Nisene Marks State Park, near Loma Prieta peak in the Santa Cruz mountains, northeast of Santa Cruz and approximately 60 miles (100 km) south of San Francisco.  Some 31 buildings were damaged enough to warrant demolition, seven of which had been listed in the Santa Cruz Historic Building Survey. , Damage to the Salinas River rail bridge and subsequent repairs led to reduced traffic on the Monterey Branch Line, which contributed to the discontinuance of freight rail services in western Monterey County. Because it happened during a national live broadcast of the 1989 World Series, taking place between Bay Area teams San Francisco Giants and the Oakland Athletics, it is sometimes referred to as the "World Series earthquake". KTVU anchors Dennis Richmond and Elaine Corral began their coverage from the station's parking lot, as power had not yet been restored to that section of Oakland. , Immediately, a number of civilians began to free victims from the rubble of Ford's Department Store and the Santa Cruz Coffee Roasting Company – both buildings had collapsed inward on customers and employees alike. Roughly half of the land the Cypress Viaduct was built on was filled marshland, and half was somewhat more stable alluvium. But the quake on October 17, 1989, which measured 7.1 on the Richter scale, killed more than 60 people and caused severe damage to the Marina District and to some freeways and even more devastation to surrounding areas. The epicenter was located near Loma Prieta peak in the Santa Cruz Mountains, approximately 14 km (9 mi) northeast of Santa Cruz and 96 km (60 mi) south-southeast of San Francisco. Earthquake-Associated Deaths -- California . Diane Laufer, 40, San Francisco , The 1989 World Series featured the Oakland Athletics and the San Francisco Giants in the first cross-town World Series since 1956. Personal response- I enjoyed reading San Francisco Earthquake, 1989: by Victoria Sherrow, because it deals with real life earthquakes. San Francisco Earthquake, 1989: Death and Destruction (American Disasters) In San Francisco proper, the statistics present a blunt description of the damage: 12 deaths.  In addition, there were 3,757 injuries as a result of the earthquake, 400 of which were serious. Updates? The book talks about big and little earthquakes that happen in San Francisco. San Francisco earthquake of 1906, a major earthquake and fire that destroyed some 28,000 buildings and killed more than 3,000 people.  For example, sand volcanoes formed in a field near Pajaro as well as in a strawberry field. Death, destruction, and havoc were again visited upon the San Francisco area in 1989. Bryant Gumbel, Jane Pauley and Deborah Norville anchored from Chicago (where they had planned to originally do a special celebratory edition), with reports done by Bob Jamieson and Don Oliver in San Francisco, and George Lewis in Oakland. Dead - More than 3,000. It happened on October 17, 1989.  One of these drivers did not see the open gap in time; the car plunged over the edge and smashed onto the collapsed roadbed. They also have editorial obituaries from 1995 to present. Death of George Floyd; ... San Francisco County, San Francisco Peninsula Coast, Northern Monterey Bay. Rush-hour traffic on the Bay Area freeways was lighter than normal because the game, being played at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, was about to begin, and this may have prevented a larger loss of life, as several of the Bay Area's major transportation structures suffered catastrophic failures. Overall there were 63 deaths from this San Francisco earthquake. It was a magnitude 6.9 on the moment magnitude scale. , The network put up a green ABC Sports “World Series” technical difficulties telop graphic while it scrambled to repair the video feed (the broadcast cameras and mics were powered by the local power supply), but audio from the stadium was restored after a few seconds via a telephone link. Because much of the slip in 1989 occurred at depth and the rupture propagated up dip, Beroza proposed that the overlying San Andreas Fault actually inhibited further rupture and also maintains that the occurrence of an event at the location that was forecast by the WGCEP in 1988 was coincidental. McNutt, S., and Sydnor, R. Click here for the lowest price!  Police dogs were brought in to help locate other victims. , The June 27, 1988, shock occurred with a maximum intensity of VI (Strong). The final death toll of 63 was well below the 300 expected deaths. The 1989 Loma Prieta San Francisco earthquake was the second most devastating earthquake in SF's history.  The apartment structures that collapsed were older buildings that included ground floor garages, which engineers refer to as a soft story building. In this ScienceStruck post, we will provide facts and statistics about this earthquake and the effects of the same.  Three people were killed in the collapse of buildings along the Pacific Garden Mall in Santa Cruz, and five people were killed in the collapse of a brick wall on Bluxome Street in San Francisco. Fire Department. [Victoria Sherrow] -- Details the events surrounding the earthquake that took place in the San Francisco Bay Area in October 1989, as well as the clean-up and recovery efforts that followed. The shaking was felt from Los Angeles in the south to Coos Bay, Oregon, in the north. Three scenarios were presented that might explain this disparity. As a consequence the normally crowded freeways contained unusually light traffic. Its effects included broken windows in Los Gatos, and other light damage in Holy City, where increased flow was observed at a water well. 1989: San Francisco earthquake survivors On 17 October 1989, San Francisco was rocked by a powerful earthquake at just after 5pm local time. The history of earthquake investigations in California has been largely focused on the San Andreas Fault System, due to its strong influence in the state as the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate; it is the most studied fault on Earth. This event caused 63 deaths The Post-Standard Syracuse New York 1989-10-18-----BAY AREA BEGINNING TO DIG OUT. SAN FRANCISCO (KGO) -- On October 17, 1989, a 6.9 magnitude earthquake ripped through the Bay Area. San Francisco Earthquake, 1989: Death and Destruction (American Disasters) by Victoria Sherrow.  Amtrak intercity rail service into Oakland from the California Zephyr continued, but the Coast Starlight was temporarily suspended north of Salinas because of damage to the Southern Pacific's Coast Line.  About an hour and 40 minutes after the quake, Fox affiliate KTVU resumed broadcasting, with their news anchors, Dennis Richmond and Elaine Corral reporting from the station's parking lot. Get this from a library! Today, it would cost $38B On the 30th anniversary of the infamous World Series earthquake, RMS … , The ML 5.3 June 1988 and the ML 5.4 August 1989 events also occurred on previously unknown oblique reverse faults and were within 3 mi (4.8 km) of the M6.9 Loma Prieta mainshock epicenter, near the intersection of the San Andreas and Sargent faults.  Among the four deaths, one family lost their infant son who choked on dust while trapped for an hour inside their collapsed apartment. San Jose International Airport, Oakland International Airport and San Francisco International Airport all opened the next morning. San Francisco Earthquake, 1989: Death and Destruction (American Disasters) [Sherrow, Victoria] on Amazon.com. The disaster that I have chosen is an earthquake that occurred in San Francisco, California, US.  KCBS-AM (CBS News Radio) switched immediately to backup power and managed to stay on air despite a subsequent generator failure.  Liquefaction also caused damage in the Watsonville area. After the shaking subsided, many of the players on both teams immediately searched for, and gathered, family and friends from the stands before evacuating the facility.. Aerial view of the collapsed section of the Bay Bridge following the San Francisco–Oakland earthquake of 1989.  There were structural failures of twin bridges across Struve Slough near Watsonville. Secondly, slip type could vary from event to event. An updated forecast was presented in 1988, at which time Lindh took the opportunity to assign a new name to the San Juan Bautista segment – the Loma Prieta segment. NOW 50% OFF! The advisories following the two Lake Elsman events were issued in part because of the statements made by WGCEP and because they were two of the three largest shocks to occur along the 1906 earthquake's rupture zone since 1914. ; Gladys Hansen and Emmet Condon, after extensive research, estimated that over 3000 deaths were caused directly or indirectly by the catastrophe. For such an immense catastrophe, the official death toll of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 seemed, for many years, weirdly small — only 478, according to the Los Angeles Times.  The measurement instrument was a single-axis search-coil magnetometer that was being used for low frequency research. Television viewers saw the video signal begin to break up, heard McCarver repeat a sentence as the shaking distracted him, and heard McCarver's colleague Al Michaels exclaim, "I'll tell you what, we're having an earth – . 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